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Environmental Studies

B.A., B.Sc., B.Com., BCA, BBA, B.Sc.(CS), B.Sc.(BT)



The Supreme Court ordered in 2003 for the introduction of Environment education as a compulsory subject at higher secondary and undergraduate levels. The introduction of the common course on environment under compulsion obviously brought confusion in the academic communities due to the lack of suitable textbooks in the subject and lack of orientation about the subject among the teachers and students of various disciplines. The authors, with their long experience in environmental teaching and research, took up the challenge and brought out a standard textbook. The book is written as per SPPU syllabus and the various units associated with it have been presented in a simple and lucid style to suit the requirements of the course. The exercises as descriptive answer questions and multiple type questions with their answer keys are given at the end of each unit for practice are intended to reinforce the knowledge of the students.
This book covers the major environmental aspects as per the syllabus framed by SPPU, Pune like, major environmental ecosystems, natural resources, biodiversity and their conservation, environmental pollution, environmental policies and practices, human communities and environment and guidelines for field work study.

1. Introduction to Environmental Studies 
1.1 Introduction to Environment
1.2 Multidisciplinary nature of Environmental Studies
1.3 Scope and Importance of Environmental Studies
1.4 Concept of Sustainability and Sustainable Development

2. Ecosystems 
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Structure of ecosystem
2.3 Function of an ecosystem
2.4 Energy flow in an ecosystem
2.5 Biogeochemical Cycles
2.6 Food chains, Food webs, and Ecological Succession
2.7 Forest ecosystem
2.8 Grassland ecosystem
2.9 Desert ecosystem
2.10 Aquatic ecosystem

3. Natural Resources: Renewable and Non-renewable Resources 
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Classification of Natural resources
3.3 Land resources
3.4 Deforestation
3.5 Water Resources
3.6 Floods
3.7 Drought
3.8 Conflicts over water (International and Inter State)
3.9 Energy resources
3.10 Use of alternate energy sources
3.11 Growing energy needs
3.12 Case studies

4. Biodiversity and Conservation 
4.1 Introduction and Concept of Biodiversity.
4.2 Levels of Biological diversity: Genetic, Species & Ecosystem diversity
4.3 Biogeographic zones of India
4.4 Biodiversity patterns
4.5 Global biodiversity hot spots.
4.6 India as a mega-biodiversity nation
4.7 Endangered and endemic species of India
4.8 Threats to biodiversity: Habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts, biological invasions.
4.9 Conservation of biodiversity: In-situ and Ex-situ conservation of biodiversity.
4.10 Ecosystem and biodiversity services: Ecological, Economic, Social, Ethical, Aesthetic and Informational value.

5. Environmental Pollution 
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Pollutants and their types
5.3 Types of pollution
5.4 Air pollution
5.5 Water pollution
5.6 Soil pollution
5.7 Noise pollution
5.8 Nuclear hazards and human health risks
5.9 Solid waste management: Control measures of urban and industrial waste
5.10 Pollution case studies

6. Environmental Policies and Practices 
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Climate change
6.3 Global warming
6.4 Ozone layer depletion
6.5 Acid Rain
6.6 Environment Laws
6.7 International Agreements
6.8 Convention on Biological Diversity
6.9 Nature reserves
6.10 Tribal populations and rights
6.11 Human wildlife conflicts in Indian context

7. Human Communities and The Environment 
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Human population growth: Impacts on environment, human health and welfare.
7.3 Resettlement and rehabilitation of project affected persons; case studies.
7.4 Disaster management: floods, earthquake, cyclones and landslides.
7.5 Environmental movements: Chipko, Silent valley, Bishnois of Rajasthan.
7.6 Environmental ethics: Role of Indian and other religions and cultures in environmental conservation.
7.7 Environmental communication and public awareness, case studies (e.g. CNG vehicles in Delhi)

8. Field Work 
8.1 Introduction
8.1 Visit to an area to document environmental assets: River/ Forest/ Flora/Fauna, etc.
8.2 Visit to a local polluted site-Urban/Rural/Industrial/Agricultural.
8.3 Study of common Plants, Insects, Birds and basic principles of identification.
8.4 Study of simple ecosystems-Pond, River, Delhi Ridge, etc.


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