Order Online Or Call Us: 0257-2232800, 2235520

SYBSc Semester IV

MB-401-402 | Genetics and Immunology | Basic Industrial Microbiology

S.Y.B.Sc. | Sem IV | Microbiology

, ,


S.Y.B.Sc. | Sem IV | GG-401
MB-401 : Genetics and Immunology
MB-402 : Basic Industrial Microbiology

Microbiology involves the study of the fascinating world of unicellular microscopic organisms which includes both eukaryotic organisms such as fungi and protists, as well as prokaryotic organisms viz. bacteria, viruses, etc. While microorganisms are often viewed negatively due to their involvement in many diseases, they are also responsible for many beneficial processes such as industrial fermentation, antibiotic production and as the vehicles for cloning in higher organisms. They are also exploited to produce many commercially viable enzymes, proteins, vitamins, growth factors, etc. They benefit our environment in many ways such as their role in biodegradation or bioremediation of domestic, agricultural and industrial wastes.
Microbiology is a broad and multifaceted discipline that encompasses many specialized areas. The knowledge of microbiology has expanded a lot in recent years and this subject has been included in the syllabi of many universities at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels.
It gives a sense of satisfaction to the authors to bring out this textbook for Second Year B.Sc Choice Based Credit System syllabus as prescribed by Kavayitri Bahinabai Chaudhari North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon as per the guidelines U.G.C. This book has two theory papers MB 401 – Genetics and Immunology & MB 402 – Basic Industrial Microbiology. Authors have made a sincere attempt to provide the students with a basic guideline for study and also gain knowledge of the subject. The book is merely an outcome of the compilation of microbiology literature and research done by various scientists in different areas of microbiology. The primary interest of the authors is to present the subject matter with simplicity and clarity, good examples added with good figures.


MB – 401 : Genetics and Immunology

Unit 1 : Genes and chromosomes
• Concept of gene, genome, allele, genotype, phenotype, recon, muton, cistron, intron, exon, haploid, diploid, lethal gene, partially diploid, omologous, heterologous etc.
• Typical structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic chromosome
• Structural organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic chromosome
• Concept of Chromosome variation (Euploidy, Aneuploidy and Polyploidy and Mitotic Non-disjunction), giant chromosome.
• Plasmid: Concept, types, structure and properties, incompatibility
• Genetic code and its properties

Unit 2 : Mutations
• Concept and significance of mutations
• Types of mutation: Base pair substitutions, frame shift, deletion, inversion, insertions, Tandem duplications, missense, nonsense, neutral, silent, pleiotropic and suppressor mutations Useful phenotypes: Auxotrophic, Conditional, Lethal, Resistant
• Spontaneous and induced types of mutation
• Mechanism of Spontaneous mutations
• Mechanism of induced mutations: Physical (UV, Gamma, and Xrays), Chemical (Base analogues, deaminating agents, alkylating agent, intercalating agent)
• Methods to study mutations: Fluctuation test, Replica plate technique, Ame’s test
• DNA repair and types of repair systems

Unit 3 : Infection and Immunity
• Immunity: concept, types (Innate, Acquired) and components of immune system and properties of immune system
• Immune Cells (stem cell, T cell, B cell, NK cell, Macrophages, Dendric cell) and organs (Bone marrow, thymus, lymph node, spleen, GALT, CALT) involved in immune response
• Non-specific immune response
• Specific immune response: Primary and secondary
• Type of immune response: Humoral and cell mediated, T and B cells characteristics
• Antigen: Concept of hapten, adjuvants, immunogen, epitope and paratope, T- dependent and T-independent antigens
• Types and properties of antigen
• Blood group: ABO antigen, Bombay blood group antigen, Dantigen and its variants, blood transfusion and rh incompatibilities
• Antibody: Types, structure and properties of each antibody, antigenic determinants on antibodies (isotypic, allotypic, ideotypic)
• Concept of Antibody diversity
• Vaccine, immune sera and toxoid

MB – 402: Basic Industrial Microbiology

Unit 1 : Basics of fermentation technology
• Characteristics of industrial strains
» Screening of industrially important microorganisms
» Primary and Secondary Screening with examples
» Screening for Amino acid / vitamin producers
» Screening for Antibiotic Producers
» Strain improvements
» Culture collection centers: National (NCIM, MCC) International (ATCC) and their role
» Preservation of microbial culture: Soil culture, Oil overlay, Liquid nitrogen Freezing, drying, Lyophilization
» Working and stock culture
• Inoculum
» Inoculum source and Characteristics
» Acclimatization
» Inoculum development and Characteristics features
• Fermentation media
» Raw materials used in media production, Screening and Selection of raw materials, typical composition and criteria for selection
» Synthetic media, Complex media and Natural media
» Sterilization: Batch Sterilization, Continuous Sterilization

Unit 2 : Fermentation
• Criteria for fermenter design and construction
• Fermenter types and parts (Impeller, baffles, sparger, stuffing box)
• Measurement and control of fermentation parameters: pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, foaming and aeration
• Fermentation process:Submerged (Batch, Fed batch, Dual/ Multiple) Solid state fermentation, concept, characteristics and applications
• Continuous Cell growth: Chemostat and Turbidostatic
• Synchronous cell growth: Physical and Chemical methods
» Applications of synchronous culture

Unit 3 : Downstream processing
• Product isolation methods
» Cell removal
» Cell disruption: Chemical methods, Ultra sonication and Enzymatic methods
• Recovery of fermentation products
• Filtration: Theory, Filter bids,
(Examples: Pressure leaf filters, Rotatory vacuum filters)
• Centrifugation: Theory, Types: Basket centrifuge, Tubular bowl, Multi-chamber centrifuge
• Solvent recovery: Two phase aqueous extraction, superficial fluid extraction, countercurrent extraction
• Chromatography: Ion exchange, Adsorption, Affinity chromatography, GC and HPLC
• Membrane process: Ultrafiltration, Reverse Osmosis, Drying, Crystallography


There are no reviews yet.

Be the first to review “MB-401-402 | Genetics and Immunology | Basic Industrial Microbiology”
Shopping cart