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Research Methodology



  1. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY : AN INTRODUCTION : 1.1 Meaning of Research 1.2 Objectives of Research 1.3 Research Methods verses Methodology, 1.4 Research Approaches 1.5 Types of research 1.6 What is the Importance of Knowing 1.7 Research Process 1.7 Criteria of a Good Research Every research study, irrespective of its kind, must meet a few criterions so that it may be labelled as suitable studies 1.8 Problems Encountered by Researchers in India Lack of Scientific Training.
  2. DEFINING THE RESEARCH PROBLEM : 2.1 What is a research problem? 2.2 Choosing the Problem/Subject of Research 2.3 What is the Requirement of Defining a Research Problem? 2.4 What are the Methods of Defining a Research Problem in Research Methodology? 2.5 An illustration.
  3. RESEARCH DESIGN : 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Definitions 3.3 Features of Research Design/Plan 3.4 Concepts involving To Research Design/Plan 3.5 Contents of Research Design 3.6 Types of Research Designs 3.7 Basic principles of experimental designs.
  4. SAMPLING FUNDAMENTAL : Need for Sampling, Some Fundamental Definitions, Significant Sampling Distributions, Central Limit Theorem, Sampling Theory, SANDLERS A-TEST, Estimation, Sample Size and Its Determination, Determination of Sample Size Through.
  5. SAMPLING DESIGN : 5.1 Census and Sample survey 5.2 Implications of a sample design 5.3 Steps in Sample Design 5.4 Sampling Procedure 5.5 Features of a good sample design.
  6. MEASUREMENT AND SCALING : 6.1 Measurement in research 6.2 Levels of measurement
  7. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION : Observation Method, Interview Method, Data Collection Through Questionnaires, Some Other Methods Of Data Collection, Collection of Secondary Data, Selection of Appropriate Method for Data Collection, Case Study Method Meaning.
  8. PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS OF DATA : Classification as stated by class-intervals, Some Problems in Processing, Elements/Types of Analysis, Statistics in Research, Measures of Central Tendency, Measures of Dispersion, Measures of Asymmetry, Measures of Relationship, Simple Regression Analysis, Multiple Correlation and Regression, Other Measures.
  9. TESTING OF HYPOTHESES I : (PARAMETRIC OR STANDARD TESTS OF HYPOTHESES) Characteristics of hypothesis, Elementary Concepts about Hypotheses Testing, Procedure for Testing of Hypothesis, Measuring The Power of A Hypothesis Test, Tests of Hypotheses, Important Parametric Tests, Hypothesis Testing of Means, Hypothesis Testing for Differences Between Means, Hypothesis Testing For Comparing Two Related Samples, Hypothesis Testing of Proportions, Testing The Equivalence of Differences of Two Normal Populations, Hypothesis Testing of Correlation Coefficients, Limitations of The Tests of Hypotheses.
  10. TESTING OF HYPOTHESES-II : (NONPARAMETRIC OR DISTRIBUTION-FREE TESTS) Important Nonparametric or Distribution-Free Tests, Two sample sign assessment, Fisher-Irwin Test, McNemer Test, Wilcoxon Matched-pairs Test, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test, Relationship Between Spearmans and Kendalls W.
  11. BASICS OF QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUES : 1. Chi-Square (X2) Test/Distribution- 1.11.1 Meaning of Chi-square (x2), 1.2 Characteristics of the Chi-square Test, 1.3 Types of Chi-Square Test/Distribution, 1.4 X2-Test For Population Variance. 2. Analysis of Variance (Anova) – 2.1 Meaning of ANOVA, 2.2 ANOVA Approach 2.3 Anova Technique 1 2.4 Set up a ANOVA table. 3.1 Steps for Testing Hypothesis 3.2 : Set up the ANOVA Table 4.1 The T-Statistic 4.2 The Critical T-Value and the T-Test Decision Rule 4.3 Choosing a Level of Significance 4.4. Confidence Intervals B) Parametric Testing C) Multivariate Testing Meaning-Multivariate Analysis Techniques, Essential Features of Factor Analysis, Assumptions of Factor Analysis, Cluster Analysis, Multivariate Analysis of Variance (Manova), Conjoint Analysis.
  12. CHI-SQUARE TEST USING : CHI-SQUARE STATISTIC IN RESEARCH Understanding the calculations, Applying Chi Square to surveys Question types, Yates Correction F
  13. ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE AND CO-VARIANCE : Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), What is ANOVA?, The Basic Principle of ANOVA, ANOVA TECHNIQUE One-way (or single factor) ANOVA, Coding Method, Two-way ANOVA, ANOVA in Latin-Square Design.
  14. MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES : Growth of Multivariate Techniques, Classification of Multivariate Techniques, Variables in Multivariate Analysis, Important Multivariate Techniques, R-TYPE AND Q-TYPE FACTOR ANALYSES, Path Analysis.
  15. MEANING OF INTERPRETATION : Why Interpretation?, Technique of Interpretation, Significance of Report Writing, Different Steps in Report Writing, The Procedure of Writing A Research Report, Literature Review, Precautions for Writing Research Reports.
  16. THE COMPUTER : IT’S ROLE IN RESEARCH/INTRODUCTION : Introduction, The Computer and Computer Technology, Role of computers in research, Important Characteristics of A Computer, Computers in Research, Further Uses of Computers, Research & Development.
  17. RESEARCH REPORT AND VALIDATION VALUE JUDGEMENT : Target Group in Report Writing, Contents of A Report, Format of The Research Report, Qualities of Good Research Report, Planning of The Report, Presentation of A Report, Style in Writing, Conclusion and Generalisation, Value Judgements.
  18. SPSS IN RESEARCH METHODOLOGY : Starting SPSS, Tools in The Data Editor.


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