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GG-112 | Introduction to Physical Geography – II (Atmosphere and Hydrosphere)

F.Y.B.Sc. | Sem I | Geography



F.Y.B.Sc. | Sem I | GG-112
Introduction to Physical Geography – II
(Atmosphere and Hydrosphere)

In September 2019 we have published the book ‘Introduction to Physical Geography I – Geomorphology.’ The students and the teachers have overwhelmingly accepted this book. Now we are publishing the second part of the book – ‘Introduction to Physical Geography’–‘Atmosphere and Hydrosphere.’ The present textbook is written on the syllabus of F. Y. B. Sc. Semester I of Savitribai Phule University of Pune. No doubt the book contains cent percent of F. Y. B. Sc. Geography syllabus, but it includes the text matter more than that of thesyllabus.
It gives us a great pleasure to hand over the book to the students and teachers. We hope students and teachers will welcome this book by heart. The entire book is prepared on computer. All figures in the book are drawn on computer by Prof. Kiran Gavit under the guidance of Prin. Dr. S .R. Chaudhari, therefore, the book has become more illustrative and informative. Most of all important points are explained with the help of figures. This is the special feature of this book. There are in all more than 130 figures. As the figures are drawn by the authors themselves; the content displayed in the figures is more precise andaccurate.

1. Introduction to Atmosphere 
a) Definition and Evolution
b) Composition of the Atmosphere
c) Structure of the Atmosphere
d) Weather and Climate, Elements of weather and Climate

2. Insolation and Temperature 
a) Definition of insolation, Solar constant, Albedo of the Earth
b) Distribution of Insolation
c) Factors affecting the Distribution of Insolation Temperature
d) Heating and Cooling of Atmosphere Conduction, Radiation, Convection
e) Heat Budget of the Earth
f) Distribution of Temperature: (A) Horizontal distribution (B) Vertical distribution

3. Atmospheric Pressure and Wind System 
Atmospheric Pressure
a) Meaning and measurement of the atmospheric pressure
b) Distribution of atmospheric pressure: Vertical and horizontal distribution of pressure.
c) Formation of Major pressure belts on the Earth’s surface.
d) Shifting of Pressure belts Concept of pressure gradient and its relation with winds
Wind systems
a) Factors affecting wind motion
b) Classification of winds (Type of winds) – Planetary winds, periodic winds, local winds
c) Atmospheric Disturbances: Cyclones, Anticyclones

4. Humidity and Precipitation 
a) Definitions of humidity, Importance of water vapour.
b) Process of Conversion of Water into three States.
c) Methods of Expressing the Humidity: Absolute, Relative and Specific humidity.
d) Evaporation.
e) Saturation.
f) Condensation.
g) Forms of Condensation: Dew, Hoar frost, Rhime, Fog, Mist, Haze and Clouds.
h) Clouds: Types – According to basic forms and height of clouds.
a) Definition and formation of precipitation
b) Forms of Precipitation : Rain, snow, sleet and hail
c) Types of Rainfall: Convectional, Orographic and Cyclonic or Frontal rainfall

5. Introduction to Hydrosphere :
a) Introduction, Definitions
b) Characteristics of Oceans of the Earth
c) Physical and Chemical characteristics of the hydrosphere
d) Hydrological Cycle: Definition, Components and Proce

6. Structure of Ocean Floor :
a) General Structure of Ocean floor: Continental shelf, Continental slope,
Abyssal plains and, Ocean deeps or Sea trenches.
b) Bottom relief of the World Oceans.
1) Bottom Relief of the Atlantic Ocean.
2) Bottom Reliefs of the Pacific Ocean.
3) Bottom Relief of the Indian Ocean.

7. Movements of Ocean Waters – Waves :
a) Definitions
b) Factors of wave formation
c) Origin of a wave
d) Wave anatomy
e) Characteristics of waves
f) Types of Breakers
g) Classification of waves based on
(1) The wave period or the associated wavelength (2) The depth of oceanic water
(3) Geomorphological processes (4) Littoral or long-shore currents (5) Breakers
(6) Wind (7) Other types
h) Significance of Waves

8. Movements of Ocean Waters – Ocean Currents :
a) Definitions and Some important terms
b) Factors affecting generation and modification of ocean currents
c) Types of Ocean Circulation
d) Downwelling and Upwelling
e) Two types of Ocean Circulations : 1. Wind driven circulation and
2. The Thermohaline Circulation
f) World Distribution of Ocean Currents
g) The Atlantic Ocean Currents
h) The Pacific Ocean Currents
i) The Indian Ocean Currents

9. Movements of Ocean Waters – Tides :
a) Definitions
b) Tide producing forces
c) Why are the tides varying in heights?
d) Time of Tides
e) Types of Tides
f) Tidal Bores


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